Victorian Occupations – C

19th Century Occupations or job descriptions from Cab Body Builder to Cycle Maker.

Cab Body Builder Someone who built the bodywork for horse drawn cabs.
Cab Driver Also Cab Driver Groom; Someone who drove a cab. They were usually also responsible for looking after the horses.
Cab Man, Cabman, Cabbie, Cab Nasher, or Groom See Cab Driver
Cab Proprietor Someone who owned a cab. He would usually employ someone to drive it.
Cabinet Brush Maker
Cabinet Carver
Cabinet Fitter
Cabinet Hawker Someone who sold cabinets.
Cabinet Maker a highly skilled maker of quality furniture
Cabinet Maker Apprentice apprentice to above
Cabinet maker, upholsterer one who specialised in seating
Cabinet Maker’s Labourer assisted – obvious really
Cabinet Polisher often a french polisher
Cabinet Tacker
Cable Jointer joined cables
Cabman drove a cab. Also Cab Driver, Cab Man, Cabbie or Carman
Cad A person employed to feed and water horses at coach stops.
Cadet, Salvation Army A junior in the Salvation Army.
Caddie A boy who carried messages or who ran errands.
Caddy Butcher butcher that dealt in horse meat
Cadger A beggar
Cafender A carpenter
Caffler rag and bone collector
Cainer made walking sticks
Caird A tinker
Cake Traveller Someone who travelled, selling cakes.
Calciner burnt bones to make powdered lime
Calender Someone who listed documents, or, a machine for pressing cloth or paper
Calender Maker Someone who makes Calenders; machines in which cloth or paper is pressed by rollers to glaze or smooth it. The Calender is actually the roller itself.
Calender Worker, Calenderer or Calenderman A person who operated a machine which pressed cloth and paper using two large rollers (calenders).
Calico Printer dyed and colored calico
Caligraphic Sign Writer Someone who created signs etc.
Cambist An expert in financial exchange, a dealer in bills of exchange.
Cambric Maker A person who made a fine linen or cotton fabric called cambric.
Camerist A lady’s maid.
Camister A minister of the cloth
Camlet Merchant A seller of camlet, cloth used to make cloaks & petticoats.
Campaner Bell Maker
Campanologist A bell ringer.
Cancellarius Chancellor.
Candle Maker or Candler One who made candles
Candy Man A travelling candy salesman, or a slang name for a bailiff.
Cane Dresser
Cane Spreader
Caner or Chair Bottomer made the seats for chairs out of woven cane
Canister Packer
Cannaller canal boat worker
Cannister Maker & Japanner Someone who Made and Japanned Canisters.
Canter A religious speaker who uses cant, or a beggar or vagrant.
Canting Caller An auctioneer
Canvaser or Canvasser One who made canvas
Cap Cutter cut cloth to make caps
Cap Front Maker
Cap Machinist machined caps
Cap Maker made caps
Cap Makers Apprentice apprentice to above
Cap Manufacturer owner of a cap making factory or establishment
Cap Milliner
Cap Sewer
Cape Maker & Liner Someone who made or lined Capes.
Caper or Capper cap maker
Capillaire Maker A person who made orange flavoured syrup.
Capitalist A person who provided private capital or wealth for the production and distribution of goods.
Capsol Maker
Capstan, Harb
Capsule Maker
Captain in charge of a ship or a group of soldiers and also a term for an overseer or boss
Captain in the Salvation Army
Carbonic Paper Maker Someone who made Carbonic, or Carbon Paper.
Card Cutter
Card Edge Gilder Someone who added Gilt edging to greeting cards.
Card Maker
Card Nailer A person who maintained the teeth (nails) on the carding machine used for preparing wool and cotton for weaving.
Card Packer
Card Wainer
Cardboard Box Cutter
Cardboard Box Maker Someone who made Cardboard Boxes.
Carder A person who operated a carding machine used to prepare wool and cotton for weaving by removing the knots and tangles.
Cardmaker A person who made the handheld implement used for carding wool and cotton, or a maker of playing cards.
Cardroomer A person who worked in the carding room of the cotton mills.
Caretaker Also Care Taker; Someone who takes care of another’s property
Carman, Carrier or Carter drove a vehicle used to transport goods
Carman Contractor carman contracted to a company
Carman with Mineral Waters carman delivering water
Carman, Railway carman working for the railway
Carman’s Assistant assisted – obvious really
Carner A granary keeper
Carnifex A Butcher
Carpentarius A Carpenter
Carpenter Skilled Woodworker.
Carpenter & Joiner Skilled woodworker. A Joiner is more skilled than a Carpenter, and wouldn’t use the term Carpenter, they’d just call themselves a Joiner. However, the term Carpenter & Joiner is listed in the 1891 London Census, so it’s listed here.
Carpenter’s Labourer assisted – obvious really
Carpet and rug manufacture made carpets and rugs
Carpet Bag Maker
Carpet Sewer
Carpet Weaver wove carpets
Carriage Painter painted carriages
Carriage Washer Someone who washed carriages.
Carrier A person who drove a vehicle used to transport goods.
Cart Boy junior version of a carman I’d guess
Cart Minder in Market a boy who looked after a stall in a market
Cart Wheeler made cart wheels
Carter A carman, carrier, drayman or wagoner.
Cartographer map maker
Cartomancer A fortune teller who used cards.
Cartrage Maker
Cartridge Maker made cartridges for the firearms industry
Cartwright maker of carts & wagons
Carver Someone who carves things.
Carver in Restaurant, Inn Someone who carves meat.
Carver, Wood or Ivory Someone who carved items out of wood or ivory.
Case Maker made cases (often packing cases)
Cashier Someone who looked after the cash and often kept the books for a business.
Cashmarie A person who sold fish usually at inland markets.
Cast Iron Trimmer Someone who trimmed off the excess metal from cast iron forgings.
Caster or Castor A person who made small bottles used for sprinkling salt, pepper, sugar etc.
Castrator A person who castrated farm animals aka a Gelder.
Casual Labourer Obvious really!
Catagman A cottager
Catchpole or Catchpoll A bailiff or sheriffs officer.
Catechist A teacher of religion.
Cat’s Meat Man Someone who supplied meat for feeding domestic cats; usually horse meat.
Cattle Drover drove cattle
Cattle Jobber A person who bought and sold cattle.
Cattle Man
Cattle Trader
Caulker filled up cracks and seams in ships or barrels to make them watertight using tar or oakum-hemp fibre
Causewayer A person who was involved in road repairs.
Cautioner guarantor, one who acts as security for another.
CC Also C. Clerk, a commercial clerk or office clerk does many basic jobs in the office, filing paperwork, sorting and answering mail, etc.
Ceapman See Chapman
Ceiler puts up the ceilings in buildings
Cellar Boy boy who worked in a cellar
Cellarette Maker or Liner Someone who made, or lined Cellarettes. A Cellarette was a case or sideboard for holding bottles of wine or liquor.
Cellarman looked after the beer, wines and spirits in public houses and warehouses
Cellarman Winestores looked after the beer, wines and spirits in wine stores
Cemmer A person who hand combed the yarn before weaving.
Certified Nurse
Certified Teacher
Chaff Cutter Also Chaffcutter; made chaff by cutting straw
Chafferer dealer in chaff
Chain Maker made chains
Chair Bodger traveling chair repairman
Chair Caner
Chair Maker made chairs
Chair Saddler
Chair Stuffer
Chaise Driver The driver of a two wheeled, one or two person, light open carriage with a hood that may be let down.
Chaise Saddler
Chaisemaker Carriage maker
Chaloner A dealer in shalloon, a material made in Chalons, or a person who made blankets.
Chamberlain steward to either royalty or nobility, in charge of the household
Chambermaid female servant attending to bedrooms in houses or inns
Chamber Master A shoemaker that worked from home as an outworker or selling direct.
Chandler grocer, dealer or trader; one who makes or sells candles
Chandler’s Shop Asst assisted – obvious really
Chanty Man or Shanty Man sailor that led the singing of shanties on board ship
Chapel Keeper
Chapeler made and sold hats
Chapman or Copeman itinerant dealer or peddler of goods, or a keeper of a booth or stall in a market
Char Dealer
Char, or Char Woman cleaner
Charcoal Burner made charcoal usually in the woods where the trees were cut
Charing
Charman See Carrier
Chartmaster A middleman that negotiated mining contracts and supplied the labour.
Charwoman / Char cleaning woman
Chaser An engraver
Chatelaine The mistress of a castle or house.
Chaunter street entertainer who sung ballads
Checker on Railway Ticket Inspector, checked to make sure that passengers had valid tickets.
Cheese Factor or Monger, or Cheeseman dealer in cheeses
Cheesemonger Dealer in cheese and butter.
Chef Someone who cooks food, but more highly skilled and qualified than a Cook.
Chemical Packer Someone who packed chemicals for a Druggist os Chemist.
Chemist Someone who was qualified to dispense drugs on prescription from a Doctor; Pharmacist, Apothecary, Druggist, etc.
Chesterman A guard.
Chest Maker made chests
Chiffonier or Chiffonnier wig maker or ragpicker
Childbed Linen Warehouse Keeper or Dealer A person who hired bedlinen for use at child-birth as most children were born at home in the 19th century.
Children’s Boot Maker made boots for children
Children’s Milliner Someone who specialised in making hats for Children
Chimney Sweep or Sweep Swept the soot out of chimneys
China & Glass Dealer sold china and glassware
Chinglor A rooftiler who used wooden shingles.
Chintz Glazer A textile mill worker who applied sizing or starch to fabric to give it more body and a smooth surface.
Chip or Chippy shipwright or carpenter
Chipper’s Labourer An assistant to a shipwright or ships carpenter.
Chiropodist A person who treats diseases of the feet & hands.
Chirugion or Chirurgeon An apothecary or surgeon.
Chowder fish monger
Chronologist A person who recorded official events of historical importance.
Church Attendant
Church Bell Brace Maker
Church Servant
Cigar Box Maker Cutter cut and made cigar boxes
Cigar Box Paperer lined cigar boxes with paper
Cigar Leaf Stripper
Cigar Lighter Seller
Cigar Maker made cigars
Cigar Maker’s Apprentice apprentice to above
Cigar Sorter & Bundler sorted and bundled cigars
Cigar Stripper tobacco stripper, part of the cigar making process
Cigarette Cutter cut cigarettes
Cigarette Maker made cigarettes
Cinder Wench female who collected cinders from gas works and sold them door to door
Circuit Rider Traveling Preacher
Cissor A tailor.
City of London Policeman
City Porter
Civil Engineer A professional consultant engineer, qualified to a higher level than a journeyman engineer. Generally employed by railway, mining, and building companies on larger projects.
Civil Servant Anyone who worked in a Government Department position.
Claker A magician or astrologer.
Clapman A man who took a person to prison.
Clark, Clarke or Clericus clerk
Classman An unemployed labourer.
Claviger A Servant
Clay Carrier An assistant to the shot firer in the pits.
Clayman One who worked in the clay pits, preparing the clay for making bricks, or a person who coated the outside of buildings with clay to make them water proof.
Cleaner, Char domestic cleaner
Cleat Maker Someone who made cleats.
Clergyman
Clericus See Clerk
Clerk general clerical work, also can mean clergyman, cleric
Clerk (C.C.) commercial clerk
Clerk (Junior) obvious really
Clerk in Holy Orders A Clergyman, cleric or priest.
Clerk of the Works Usually shortened to Clerk of Works; involved on-site supervision of construction processes. They had to account for all the contract specifications, measure the contractor’s work, monitor construction lines and levels, and assure the quality of materials used.
Clerk Secretary secretarial clerk
Cleyman See Clayman
Clicker One who made eyelet holes or uppers in boots using a machine which clicked, or a person in charge of the final stage of layout before printing in the print industry, or the servant of a salesman who stood at the door to invite customers in.
Clipper, Clipper on, or Clipper Off One who attached the coal carts to the rope which was used to drag the carts to and from the coal face in the mines.
Clock & Watchmaker Someone who made clocks and watches
Clock Maker Also clockmaker; Someone who made clocks.
Clod Hopper plowman or ploughman
Clog Dancer street entertainers – Actors
Clogger A clog maker (wooden shoes).
Cloth Cap Maker
Cloth Cutter cut cloth
Cloth Dealer
Cloth Dyer Someone who dyed cloth.
Cloth Lapper A person who took the cloth from the carding machine and made it ready for the next process.
Cloth Linter or Picker A person who removed unwanted threads and lint from the finished material.
Cloth Presser pressed cloth
Cloth Worster Someone who operated a gilling machine that straightened the fibres in yarn to make worsted cloth.
Clothes Cutter cut clothes
Clothesman Someone who made or sold clothes.
Clothier Someone who made or sold clothes
Clothier’s Cutter Someone who cut clothes
Clothman See Clothier
Clouter A person who made nails. Also another term for a shoemaker.
Clower A person who made nails.
Club Proprietor manager of a club
Coach Builder Someone who built coaches.
Coach Maker made coaches
Coach Painter painted coaches
Coach Smith Ticeman
Coachman drove a coach, or acted as a guard, or looked after the horses
Coal Backer A person employed to carry the sacks of coal from the coal barge to the coal wagons.
Coal Bearer Someone who carried coal on their backs from the coal face to the pit bottom, often a child
Coal Burner A person who made charcoal.
Coal Carman
Coal Dealer Someone who sold coal.
Coal Dealer & Carman
Coal Dealer & Greengrocer Someone who sold fruit and vegetables as well as coal
Coal Drawer worked in the mines pushing or dragging the coal carts to the bottom of the pit
Coal Getter Someone who gets the coal from the coal face, and puts it into corves for transport to the pit bottom.
Coal Heaver A person employed to move coal e.g. from boat to shore or from shore to boat.
Coal Higgler or Coalman A person who sold coal usually from a horse and cart, house to house.
Coal Hurrier Someone who is harnessed to a corf or corve (small wagon) full of coal, and pulls it from the coal face to the pit bottom. Usually young girls.
Coal merchant/dealer See Coal Dealer
Coal mine service worked in a coal mine
Coal Mine Trapper A child employed to open and close ventilation doors at the bottom of a coal mine.
Coal Miner worked in a coal mine
Coal Porter or Coal Bearer carried and delivered coal
Coal Putter Someone who puts coal into a basket for a coal bearer to carry
Coal Runner A person who attended the coal carts underground.
Coal Thruster Someone who pushes to corves from the coal face to the pit bottom with their hands and the tops of their head.
Coal Whipper One employed to unload coal from ships using baskets attached to a simple form of crane.
Coalmeter A person who measured the coal.
Coast Surveyor or Waiter A customs officer who watched over the off-loading of goods on the coast.
Coat Button Hole Maker
Coat Presser
Coat Tailor
Cobbler Somene who mended shoes and boots. They were often prohibited by law from making shoes completely from new leather, so some of them would take old shoes and dismantle them and make new shoes from old leather.
Cobleman A person who used a flat bottomed boat for fishing.
Cockfeeder A person who looked after fighting cocks.
Cocoa Nut Opener opened cocoa nuts
Cocus A cook
Cod Placer A person who put the fire proof containers which held the pottery for firing into the kiln.
Coffee Broker
Coffee House Keeper
Coffee House Manager managed a coffee house
Coffee House/Shop Keeper kept a coffee house or coffee shop
Coffee Merchant
Coffee Packer
Coffee Roaster
Coffin Maker made coffins
Coffin Maker, Undertaker made coffins and took care of funeral arrangements
Cohen a priest
Coiner A person who worked at the Mint stamping out coins.
Collar Cutter, Shirt cut collars for shirts
Collar Dresser Shirt fitted collars onto shirts
Collar Examiner
Collar Hand
Collar Ironer ironed collars on shirts
Collar Machinist
Collar Maker made horse collars or shirt collars
Collar Stamper
Collar Stitcher
Collar Turner
Collator, Book Trade
Collector
Collier coal miner, a coal merchant or one who worked on the coal barges
Colour Factory Labourer
Colour Man mixed the dyes in the textile trade and also assistant to a house painter
Colourator or Colorator A person who worked with dyes.
Colours Ink
Colours Manager
Colporteur Peddler of books, sometimes religious books.
Colt A name for unskilled workers. Used to describe women and children working in the framework knitting trade.
Colver or Culver Someone who kept Doves.
Comb Maker (Bone, Ivory) A person who made combs either for the textile industry for combing wool etc. or the maker of hair combs, often out of Bone or Ivory.
Comber One who operated a combing machine in the mills.
Combere A person who combs wool.
Comedian, Actor
Comedienne, Actress
Commercial Agent another name for an agent
Commercial Clerk another name for a clerk
Commercial Traveller another name for a travelling salesman
Commission Agent Another name for an Agent.
Commission Traveller Another name for a Travelling Salesman.
Commissionaire Someone employed as an Attendant, Doorman, Messenger or Light Porter employed in Hotels or Railway Stations.
Commissioner
Common Wood Turner
Companion
Compositor, Printer set the type ready for printing
Conder A person on shore who gave directions to fisherman as to the movements of the shoals of fish (usually from the top of cliffs).
Conductor, Groom
Coney Catcher rabbit catcher
Confectioner maker of sweets
Conner An inspector or tester.
Constable, City of London
Contractor
Contriver An inventor, or a schemer or plotter.
Conveyor A grantor or seller.
Cook someone who cooks food
Cook, Domestic someone who cooks food domestically
Cooper or Cuper makes or repairs barrels or other vessels made of staves & hoops, such as casks, tubs, vats, etc (See also Tea Cooper, someone who made tea chests)
Copeman dealer in goods, or a dishonest dealer in horses.
Coper A horse dealer. Sometimes a dishonest horse dealer.
Copperbeater or Copperbeter A coppersmith, someone who worked with copper or brass.
Copper miner mined copper ore
Copper Plate Printer
Copper Plate Printer, Litho
Coppersmith Also Copper Smith; Someone who made items out of copper
Coppersmith’s Labourer assisted – obvious really
Coppice Keeper A person who looks after a small wood.
Copying Clerk
Copyist in the Admiralty
Coracle Maker A person who made coracles, small round boats used for inland water fishing.
Cord Twister, Rope Someone who twisted fibres to make cord or rope.
Cordiner A shoemaker; someone who made shoes and other articles from fine soft leather. Also a person who worked with Cordovan, a special soft leather from Cordoba, Spain. (As opposed to a Cobbler, who simply repaired shoes)
Cordovan See Cordiner
Cordwainer See Cordiner
Coriander Washer
Cork Cutter A person who worked with cork.
Cork Manufacturer, Timber
Cork Porter one who carried cork
Cork Sack Maker
Cork Sorter
Corn Agent
Corn Chandler sold corn
Corn Cutter A podiatrist.
Corn Dealer
Corn Factor A middleman in corn deals.
Corn Merchant
Corn Meter An official who measured and weighed the corn at market.
Corn Porter carried corn
Cornet The lowest commissioned rank in a cavalry regiment.
Cornet Maker Someone who made ice cream cornets
Correspondent journalist or writer
Corresponding Clerk
Corsage Hand
Corsage Maker Someone who made Corsages, or small flower arrangements to be worn on the shoulder or wrist.
Corset Busk Coverer
Corset Hand
Corset Machinist
Corset Maker, Bone made corsets
Corver A person who made baskets used in coal mining known as corves.
Corveysera, Corviner or Corviser See Cordiner
Cosque Maker
Cossack Maker
Coster peddlar, hawker, seller of goods on the street, sometimes fruit, but not always
Coster Monger Also Costermonger; fruit seller, or peddler, hawker, seller of goods on the street
Coster Wife female fruit seller
Costume Maker, Dress
Costumer
Coteler or Cotyler A person who made and repaired knives.
Cotiler A cutler
Cottager, Cottar, Cotter or cottier An agricultural labourer who lived in a cottage on the landowners farm.
Cotton Feeder A person employed in the cotton mills to feed the cotton into the loom.
Cotton Minder
Cotton Stitcher
Cotton Winder wound cotton
Couch Frame Maker
Coucher A person employed in the paper making trade.
Counterman, GPO
Countour A person who collected rates.
County Bank, Messenger
Couper A dealer, Buys and sells, usually cattle and horses.
Couple Beggar An itinerant priest who performed marriages without licence or banns.
Coupler A person employed in the coal mines coupling the coal tubs together.
Couranteer A journalist.
Court Factor A person who bought and sold courts (small carts).
Court Roller A person in charge of the court rolls and records.
Court Toolmaker A manufacturer of tools used to produce carts known as courts.
Courtier The owner and driver of a horse and cart known as a court.
Cow Boy, Milk milked cows
Cow Keeper Also Cowkeeper, Dairyman or Milkseller; kept one or more cows and sold the milk from the front door, or from door to door
Cow Leech An animal doctor.
Cowherd A person who looked after cows.
Cowman See Cow Keeper
Coxwain ship or boat helmsman, or a member of the crew that gave the steering instructions to the helmsman
Crane Man
Crayman driver of a cart carrying heavy loads.
Creaque Hand
Credit Draper
Cricket Ball Baker
Cricket Bat Maker
Crier law court officer, auctioneer, town announcer
Crimper A member of navy press gang.
Crocker Potter
Crockery Hawker
Crofter tenant of a small piece of land
Cropper tenant who is paid with a share of the crop, or a skilled worker in the Yorkshire weaving trade who sheared the nap from cloth.
Crossing Sewer
Crowner A Coroner
Cuhreur or Cunreur A currier.
Culler A gelder of male animals.
Curate – Clergy someone who is an asistant to a parish priest
Curer cures tobacco or pork
Curretter A Broker.
Currier One who dresses the coat of a horse with a curry comb, or one who cures or tans hides
Custer
Customs Officer Also Customer; A customs tax collector.
Cutler knife seller or sharpener
Cutter One who cuts things
Cycle Maker Someone who made Bicycles.